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PABGANA. SA'BABXD.                                         405

possession, the remainder of the land having been transferred to Muhaminadans
and Baniyas. The town is not large enough to form a municipality, -but is
administered under Act XX. of 1856. The principal meld is the Ram Lilu,
started only 40 years ago by Pachauri Mukund Sinh, when Tahsildar. The
oldest temples are two in honour of Mahadeva, one of Hanuman, and a fourth
founded by Daulat Eao, Sindhia, dedicated to Muiii Manohar. In the mutiny
the place was attacked by the Jats, and seven lives were lost before they could
be repulsed, A Thakui- of Hathras, by name Samant Sinh, who led the defence,
subsequently had a grant of a village in Aligarh, while two of the Jat ringleader?,
Zalim and Deokaran of Kursanda, were hanged.
Immediately opposite the road that branches off to Jalesar is a neat little
rest-house for the accommodation of the officers of the Public "Works Depart-
ment ; and about half a mile from the town on the Agra side is a large and
commodious bungalow of the Kun war's, which is always placed at the disposal
of his English friends. It -is surrounded by extensive mango groves, and
attached to it is a spacious garden, very prettily laid out and well-kept, contain-
ing many choice varieties of trees, flowers, and creepers.
SAHPAU (probably for Sah-pura)  population. 3,635  is the largest village
in. the pargana, a little off the Sa'dabad and Jalesar road, and close to the Manlk-
pur Railway Station. The Thakur zamindars are Gahlots, who trace their
descent from Chitor, and say that at one time they had as many as 52 villages
in this neighbourhood. The elder branch of the family, as at Sabpaa, Kukar-
gama, Isaunda, &c., take to themselves the title of Sah ; the second, as at Tehu in
Jalesar, that of Chaudhari ; and the youngest, that of Rao. Thakur Buddh Sinh
of Umargarh now owns 5 bis was of the estate, purchased by his father, Thakur
TIkam Sinh ; Bindaban Sah is lumberdar of other 10, and Jhanian Sah of the
remaining 5. But out of these 15 bis was, Chunni Kiiar, wife of Panna Lai,
baniya, has acquired 7J- viz.y 5 of Bindaban's and 2^ of Jnaman's, Two
families of Sanadh Brahmans have long enjoyed a maiikana of Us. 175, payable
In four shares, two of Es, 62-8-0 and two of Es. 25 each, but the liability to
further payment is now disputed by the proprietors, since one share has been sold
and another mortgaged to a baniya, by name Bidhi-chand. There are 5 ham-
lets, called Sukh-ram, Badama, Tika Bam, Kushali, and Mewa, The Baniyas
are all either Baraseni Vaishnavas, or Jaeswar Saraugis. The latter say that
they came from Gliitor with the Thakurs. They have a modern temple dedicated
to Nem-nath, where a festival is held In the month of Bhadon. It stands imme-
diately under the site of tbe old fort, which is well raised and occupies aa area